دی ان ان evoq , دات نت نیوک ,dnn
پنجشنبه, 24 آبان,1397

Hajj and Financial Management


Hajj and Financial Management

Hajj and Financial Management

The late Mr. Tahaiee in his course of Economy, in the middle 80s, had taught about Hajj ceremony and its reflections in Quran verses and in the Sayings of the Infallibles. Hereafter is a brief summary of what he had said.

The Economy Definition:

"قصد" {Qasd} / (Intent in English) means "to go in a straight path" or "to build up a way in a steady manner". "اقتصاد" {iqtisad} in Arabic (Economy in English) is derived from this etymon and it is divided into two features:

First: The acceptable Economy

It is something that absolutely based on and defined by moderation and temperance, like generosity or grant that go between two extreme of indulgence and avarice, or like bravery and courage that go between temerity and fear. This quranic verse refers to this concept: «وَاقْصِدْ فِي مَشْيِكَ...»  (Luqman/19).

The abovementioned verse is one of Luqman's advises to his son which is about the manners of speaking, walking and other human characteristics. Another verse which contains the concept of moderation and economy is: « وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا أَنفَقُوا لَمْ يُسْرِفُوا وَلَمْ يَقْتُرُوا وَكَانَ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ قَوَامًا » (Furqan/67).

Economy in this sense is used in every human life aspects from worships and trade, to generosity, bravery, speaking and ….

Second: Economy is in the middle, which ironically is located between an acceptable state and a non-acceptable one. Similar to being in a position between justice and tyranny or a state between near and far. Quran Said: «...فَمِنْهُمْ ظَالِمٌ لِّنَفْسِهِ وَمِنْهُم مُّقْتَصِدٌ وَمِنْهُمْ سَابِقٌ بِالْخَيْرَاتِ...» (Fater/32) and among them is he who wrongs himself, and among them is he who is moderate, and among them is he who is foremost in good deeds by permission of Allah. (Raqib Isfahani below the entry of Intent). Economy in general term means the knowledge of livelihood which has a deep the impact on the daily lives of individuals and nations. Today the economic growth and distribution of income and opportunity between individuals and the community is measured as the basis of progress. So what Economics implies is to get more familiar with the material necessities. Since the beginning of life, humans are dealing with economic issues due to his/her physical material needs. Today, to gain more material prosperity, some planning and careful management have been made, and all equipment and factors affecting growth and cause the rising of incomes and products have been identified to prevent and reduce irreparable losses and waste.

So the subject of economics is material needs and those developments that come into existence in the way towards economic growth. It should be said that the first necessary factor in economy which must be discussed is the defining and introduction of Islamic Economy. Islamic issues, particularly the economy of Islam should be considered together with other Islamic concepts, because Islam is a comprehensive school of thought and its principles are interconnected, and every stage is a complementary of another principle and ignoring some of them will result in instability and failure of other principles. For this reason, Islamic economy should be considered together with particularly other concepts such as opinion, morality, and.... 

The role of opinion in the implementation of economic issues is important; because a religious man act base on the program which he takes from God, the true owner. Such a person is very careful about the God's orders and pay attention to the quality of earnings and does not exploit people.

The morality reveals and reflects the opinion and shape behavior, build up attitude and the spirit of man, and in fact the opinion is the generator and morality is the generated.

Sometimes people are not willing to pay any amount for others, but in the light of Islamic faith and morals even immeasurable amount of money passionately and desirably with altruism will spend in Allah's way.

In the 9th ayah of Insan Sura in Holy Quran Allah said: «إِنَّمَا نُطْعِمُكُمْ لِوَجْهِ اللَّهِ لَا نُرِيدُ مِنكُمْ جَزَاء وَلَا شُكُورًا», [Saying], "We feed you only for the countenance of Allah. We wish not from you reward or gratitude. Observing moral principles and clearing the mind and thoughts of the evils helps to improve social and economic conditions and removes the obstacles and barriers of the human journey toward perfection and pave the way.

 

The Role of Hajj in Economy

Hajj literally means the plan or intent. Then visiting Mecca to perform the rites and rituals was regarded as the meaning of this word. Hajj consists of several prayers and contains abundant virtues. For example the pilgrim with sacrifice gains blessing and with tawaf and prayers achieves the benefits which was specified to these.  The great Hajj ceremony strengthens the pillars of Islam and improves and empowers the Muslims in different fields of thought, culture, military, and politics and especially in economy. Fatimah Al-Zahrã (A.S.) in Fadakieh sermon said:  والحج تشییداً للدّین. (Majlisi, Bihār al-Anwār, Vol. 29) God has been strengthened Islam by the Hajj.

Hajj will transform human insight and intellectual development prepares the groundwork for economic improvement. Hence the Hajj ceremony is a platform which could be used annually to get huge economic advantage and gave a boost to economic and financial affairs of Islamic societies.

Muslims in this great gathering should lay the basis for an Islamic common market and prepare the ground for trade and economic exchanges in such a way that they themselves benefit from the profits, not their enemies; and their economies would be independent of the non-Muslims. (Makarm shirazi, Nemuneh, Vol. 14, p 81)

Is addressing the economic issues in the Hajj, inviting to the material world?

In the first glance, it seems that paying attention to material affairs is in contrast with the goals and incompatible with the spirit of the Hajj. But with accurate considering of the Quranic verses and explanation of divine insight and vision, this topic would completely be solved. The Holy Quran Said: «وَأَذِّن فِي النَّاسِ بِالْحَجِّ يَأْتُوكَ رِجَالًا وَعَلَى كُلِّ ضَامِرٍ يَأْتِينَ مِن كُلِّ فَجٍّ عَمِيقٍ لِيَشْهَدُوا مَنَافِعَ لَهُمْ...» (Hajj/ 27&28) And proclaim to the people the Hajjj [pilgrimage]; they will come to you on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every distant pass and that they may witness benefits for themselves (in this resuscitative program. Benefits is the plural form of the benefit and contains and refers to both spiritual and material aspects, and one of the most important material benefits of the Hajj is its economic one.

Imam Ali Ibn Musa, Al-Ridha (as) in one of his remarks about Hajj said: «إِنَّمَا أُمِرُوا بِالْحَجِ‏ لِعِلَّةِ الْوِفَادَةِ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ طَلَبِ الزِّيَادَةِ... مَعَ مَا فِي ذَلِكَ لِجَمِيعِ الْخَلْقِ مِنَ الْمَنَافِعِ لِجَمِيعِ مَنْ فِي شَرْقِ الْأَرْضِ وَ غَرْبِهَا وَ مَنْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَ الْبَحْرِ مِمَّنْ يَحُجُّ وَ مِمَّنْ لَمْ يَحُجَّ » - «But ordered a Hajj to come before God Almighty and ask him to increase blessings... with what's in it to determine the interests of all Muslims in all of the land in the east and the west and from the land and sea, including those that are present in or absent from Hajj pilgrimage ». (Al-Hurr al-Aamili, Wasā'il al-Shīʿa, Vol.11, p. 12)

Hajj is beneficiary for all these times. According to this noble hadith Hajj (pilgrimage) is going towards God. In the phrase: «الوفاده الی الله عزوجل» the word "وفود" {Vofoud} / (Delegation in English) means to enter on a mission on behalf of the individual or group. The phrase «طلب الزیاده» in imam’s remark means more and more increases in Islamic values ​​and ethics.

In fact, when a pilgrim enters for the Ihram and wears Ihram clothing, he does not seek indulgence in the world. These actions practically teach him to refrain himself from some sorts of pleasures and do not adhere to the beauties of the world. Moreover, this requires higher levels of information, knowledge of politics, economy and culture of the great Muslim community. Hence, conferences and meeting should be held in Mecca and various scientists and experts and politicians should be invited to exchange knowledge and expertise to plan and establish an Islamic economy so that even the plans for trade and goods exchange, be drafted and implemented.

This content could be withdrawn from the Imam Sadiq (A.S.) remark: «... فَجَعَلَ فِيهِ الِاجْتِمَاعَ مِنَ الشَّرْقِ وَ الْغَرْبِ لِيَتَعَارَفُوا وَ لِيَنْزِعَ كُلُّ قَوْمٍ مِنَ التِّجَارَاتِ مِنْ بَلَدٍ إِلَى بَلَدٍ وَ لِيَنْتَفِعَ بِذَلِكَ الْمُكَارِي و الْجَمَّالُ » God ordered the people from east and west to gather and perform the rituals for several reasons:

A.      Achieving compliments and understanding between Muslims and the People of the Qibla (Mecca).

B.      Every nation and tribe enjoying the material benefits of traveling from town to town. (Al-Shaykh al-Saduq, Vol.2, p.406)

C.      Camels and donkey owners and benefiting from this traveling. (Al-Shaykh al-Saduq, Ilal al-shara'i (the cause of the situations) translated by Mohammad Javad Zehni Tehrani, Vol.2, p.308-309)

Thus we see that the Hajj ceremony is a massive pilgrimage for the entire Muslim community and can be used as a platform to climb to the height of world cultural, political, military and economic summit.

This helps the real meaning of this verse becomes true: «... وَأَنتُمُ الأَعْلَوْنَ إِن كُنتُم مؤْمِنِينَ» ('Āli `Imrān/139) ... and you will be superior if you are [true] believers.

References:

1.       The holy Quran

2.       Raqib Isfahani, Hossein Ibn Muhammad, Al-Mufradat, Shadid Islam Publication Office, Qum, 1387 (2008)

3.       Makarem Shirazi, Naser, Nemuneh, Tehran, Dar al-Kotob al-Islamieh, 1370 (1991)

4.       Al-Ḥurr Al-ʿĀmili, Muhammad bin al-Ḥassan, Wasael ush-Shia, Qum, Al Al-Beit Institut, 1403(1983)

5.       Al-Shaykh al-Saduq ,Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn Babawaih al-Qummi, Ilal al-shara'I, Qum, Davari  Bookshop, 1385 (2006)

6.       Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar ul Anwar, Beirut, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, 1403 (1983)

شماره نشریه:  شمیم نرجس شماره 28


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